Obtaining certain types of ceramic tiles (in accordance with specifications) depends primarily on the production technology. Figure 1 shows the main stages of different cycles and technology are the main types of ceramic tiles, which they can receive.
The technological cycle of production of various types of ceramic tiles
The secret of producing high-quality new material is carefully worked manufacturing process, which is continuously being improved. At the heart of it – roasting at high temperatures, varying depending on the type of material from 900 to 1200 ° C. To manufacture the most diverse natural raw material. The body is made from slabs of clay mixture (to give plasticity), silica sand (to give a hard shell tiles) and feldspar (to give a melting point). To prepare the glaze used sand, kaolin clay, previously harvested crushed glass and pigments based on oxides (for coloring).
For body tile raw materials are crushed and mixed thoroughly to obtain a completely smooth for subsequent molding. Formers used two methods – pressing and extrusion. Pressed tiles obtained from the solution of the powder, which is compacted and compacted under high pressure. Extruded tiles is obtained by passing through corresponding holes wet mixture of raw materials, giving it a final form. tours in Russia
The method of compacting allows tighter control over size, and, in addition, receive a better quality surface.
After forming the tiles, especially dried to remove a small moisture content. Then subjected to firing (neglazurirovannaya tiles). Chemical and physical properties – density, resistance to mechanical and chemical influences – it gets in the firing process. At high temperature roasting gives the material resistance to chemical attack and physical environmental influences.
Ceramic tiles are divided into unglazed and glazed. Glaze (German Glasur, from Glas – Glass) – vitreous protective and decorative coating on ceramics, which is fixed by firing (transparent or opaque, colorless or tinted).
Unglazed tile is almost uniform throughout the thickness, and usually do not have any decorative patterns.
Glazed tiles can be fired single or double (on the primary product is applied to the enamel burnt, and it is subjected to repeated firing).
As a result of a combination of different variants of technological processes (for example, a single firing or double firing), the use of different source material (white and red clay rocks) and forming (pressing or extrusion), made various kinds of ceramic tiles.
The product obtained by molding a mixture of raw ingredients. The color of burnt mixture varies from light yellow to dark brown depending on the content of iron in the clay and the porosity. Most single-fired ceramic tiles are made from a mixture of light: it is related to its manufacturing advantages, as well as strong demand in the market.
Compressed mixture is subjected to glazing and firing to single track, which provides good adhesion to the glaze mixture.
Ceramic tiles can be manufactured with a dense or porous glass as a substrate. This is an extremely important characteristic of the tiles, as depends on the porosity and water absorption, which in turn determines its frost resistance, mechanical strength and, consequently, the area of application. Depending on the water absorption of ceramic tiles should be selected and suitable materials for their installation.
Nizkoporistaya tiles suitable for indoor and outdoor unit floors and is characterized by high resistance to mechanical agents and frost. Products are of high shrinkage during firing, and therefore sold at the party split in size.
Highly porous single-fired tiles are made from a special blend designed to prevent shrinkage during the firing process: why tiling is possible with a narrow seam. The product has a high porosity (greater water absorption) and low mechanical strength, making it suitable for wall cladding.
Another type of single-fired tiles glazed tiles is under pressure. It is made of modern technology, according to which the glaze layer is subjected to compaction, together with the mixture and continue roasting. The finished product has a low porosity and, due to the high layer thickness of the glaze is particularly suitable for floors subjected to high loads in heavy traffic.
Tile double firing
The product was manufactured by this method before the introduction of single firing mode: on the traditional technology of coating applied to the burned mixture, then the product is subject to a second firing. The disadvantage of this technology to single-firing method is the higher cost of production (two baking instead of one), as well as the inability to manufacture products nizkoporistyh (can not be fired nizkoporistoy browning of the mixture).
At present, the double firing tiles used for walls and floors, especially when the need to give gloss tile surface. In this case, the double firing technology has an advantage over single: the latest technology in the firing process the glaze penetrates through the gas from the decomposition of the mixture that forms on the shiny surface of tile small traces in the form of the ends of the pins, cracks, there is no shortage of such technology in the double firing.